State Structure and Political System of Ghana
History of Ghana
In the Middle Ages, there were many early political formations on the territory of Ghana. In the 15th century the first Europeans appeared in the 19th century. Britain’s colonial conquests led to the Anglo-Ashanti wars. To the beginning 20th century Ghana became an English colony called the Gold Coast, and in 1957 it was proclaimed an independent state called Ghana (since 1960 a republic). The government of independent Ghana was headed by the founder of the Convention People’s Party (CPP, founded in 1949), K. Nkrumah. The NPC put forward a program of non-capitalist development of the country. In February 1966, a coup d’état was carried out in Ghana; the National Liberation Council, created by its organizers, rejected the course pursued by the Nkrumah government and disbanded the CPP. In October 1969 a new civilian government was formed, which activated the national private capital and ensured the inflow of foreign capital. In 1972–79 and since December 1981, the military has been in power. Since 1993, Ghana has had a civil form of government. In the presidential election in 2000, John Kufuor was elected president (he was supported by the leaders of three major parties: CPP, NNC and NPR). The NPP won the parliamentary elections with 99 out of 200 parliamentary seats, while the PDC – only 92 seats. In 2000–01, in the northeast of Ghana, due to unresolved land issues, mass clashes between the Maligrusi and Kusashi ethnic groups took place. and NDK – only 92 places. In 2000–01, in the northeast of Ghana, due to unresolved land issues, mass clashes between the Maligrusi and Kusashi ethnic groups took place. and NDK – only 92 places. In 2000–01, in the northeast of Ghana, due to unresolved land issues, mass clashes between the Maligrusi and Kusashi ethnic groups took place.
State structure and political system of Ghana
According to microedu, Ghana is a presidential republic. The Constitution of January 7, 1993 is in force. Administratively, Ghana is divided into 10 regions (2003): Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, East, West, North, Central and Greater Accra metropolitan area. The largest cities (2003, thousand people): Accra, Kumasi (645.1), Tamale (279.6), Tema (250.0).
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament. Executive power is exercised by the president of the republic and the government. The head of state, government and commander-in-chief is the president. The president and deputies of parliament (200 people) are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of 4 and 5 years, respectively. Ministers are appointed by the President from among the members of Parliament and are subject to his approval. Under the government, the National Security Council and the State Council have been established.
President J. Rawlings (1992-2000) contributed to the introduction of a multi-party system and the strengthening of democracy in the country. He was the first president to be re-elected for a second term. Prior to this, all regimes were overthrown by the military before the expiration of their term of office.
Local self-government bodies are village, city, municipal, district and regional councils. OK. 1/2 of the seats in the councils can be occupied by the leaders of the tribes.
A multi-party system has been adopted since 1992. Main parties: National Democratic Congress (NDC), New Patriotic Party (NPP), People’s Convention Party (CPP), People’s National Convention (NNC), National Reform Party (NRP).
Leading business organizations: Ghana State Chamber of Commerce, Ghana Cocoa Authority, Cereals and Vegetables Development Council, Timber Export Development Council.
Public organizations: The Congress of Trade Unions of Ghana, founded in 1945, unites 17 branch trade unions.
The priority of domestic policy is the implementation of the Vision 2020 socio-economic program (export diversification, creation of free trade zones, improvement of the living standards of the population) in order to promote stability and the development of democracy.
Ghana’s participation in international affairs comes down to supporting the position taken by the majority of the AU member countries. Actively participated in the peace settlement in Liberia and the resolution of the conflict in Sierra Leone.
In 1998, there were 5 thousand people in the Ground Forces, 100 people in the Air Force, 1 thousand people in the Navy, 500 people in the Presidential Guard, and 5 thousand people in the People’s Militia.
Ghana has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1958).