State Structure and Political System of Brazil
According to topschoolsintheusa, the political system that arose after the restoration of civil forms of government in the country was called the New Republic. The 1988 constitution (as amended in 1994 and 1997) proclaimed Brazil a democratic constitutional state based on the principles of sovereignty, citizenship, human dignity, social values of work, free enterprise and political pluralism. A federal presidential republic has been adopted as a model of the territorial and state structure of the country.
Administrative division: 26 states (Acri, Ala Goas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para iba, Para, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Ja Neiro (Rio de Janeiro), Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Ceara, Sergipe, Tocantins, Espi Ritu Santo) and the Capital Federal District.
Largest cities (million people, 2000 census): Sao Paulo (10.4), Rio de Janeiro (5.9), Salvador (2.4), Belo Horizonte (2.2), Fortaleza (2.1), Porto Alegre (1.4), Brasilia, Recife (1.4).
Legislative power is exercised by the National Congress, which consists of the Chamber of Deputies (513 members in 2003, chaired by J.P. Cunha) and the Federal Senate (81 members, chaired by J. Sarney). The size of the lower house is adjusted depending on population growth. Both chambers have equal powers and are controlling in relation to each other. Legislative initiative is vested in deputies and senators, the president, the Federal Supreme Court, higher courts, the attorney general and citizens (popular initiative).
The functions of Congress include the approval of the state budget and control over the expenditures of the federal government. The National Congress hears and evaluates the President’s annual progress report. Ministers are not accountable to parliament.
The federal executive power belongs to the president and the cabinet of ministers headed by him. The president independently appoints ministers and dismisses them from their posts, signs and publishes laws, has the right to veto, issues acts having the force of law, is the supreme commander in chief and has the right, if necessary, to introduce a state of emergency and a state of siege, declare war on other states, pass through the national territory or allow the temporary presence of foreign troops, grant amnesty or commute sentences. The head of state appoints (with subsequent approval by the Senate) the members of the Federal Supreme Court, the attorney general, the chairman and directors of the central bank.
The highest bodies of judicial power are the Federal Supreme Court (11 people) and the High Court of Justice (33 people). The justice system also includes regional federal judges and federal judges, the Higher Labor Court (27 people), the High Electoral Court (7 people) and the Supreme Military Tribunal (15 life members representing various branches of the military), state and local courts. courts. Jury courts have been established to try criminal offenses.
The states have their constitutions, legislative assemblies and governors and lieutenant governors, municipalities have municipal chambers, prefects and vice prefects.
The electoral system is regulated by the Constitution of 1988 (as amended in 1994 and 1997) and the law of 1997. The Basic Law granted the right to vote to the illiterate, the age limit was reduced from 18 to 16 years.
The president, vice president, governors and lieutenant governors are elected in general elections for a term of 4 years on the basis of universal, direct, equal, secret and compulsory suffrage from among candidates nominated by officially registered political parties and coalitions. Elections are held according to the majority system. If necessary, a 2nd round is held, in which the 2 applicants who receive the largest number of recognized valid votes take part. The 1997 constitutional amendment allows for the re-election of senior officials for a 2nd term.
The Chamber of Deputies is elected by a proportional system using a preferential vote based on unranked party lists, the Federal Senate is elected by a majoritarian system. Each subject of the federation is represented by 3 senators elected for 8 years. Once every 4 years, the Senate is renewed by 1/3 and 2/3. Simultaneously with the senator, 2 of his deputies are elected. The vacant seat of a senator is automatically filled by his deputy.
In accordance with Art. 17 of the Constitution proclaims the freedom to create, merge, split and dissolve national political parties, whose activities must be of a parliamentary nature and not financially dependent on foreign states. Party statutes are registered by the Supreme Electoral Court, in accordance with the law they are granted access to the state party fund, the right to free use of radio and television. Parties are prohibited from having paramilitaries. The parties are assigned a monopoly on political representation. The National Congress functions on the basis of parliamentary, not party factions; after the election, deputies are not bound by strict party discipline.
The party system is characterized by extreme fragmentation and polarization. More than 40 political parties are registered. The personality of the party leader still plays a key role. Party coalitions are created taking into account market interests.
To some extent, political polarization was overcome as a result of the presidential and parliamentary elections of 1994 and 1998, which ensured the victory of the candidate of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party F.E. Cardoso. In the 2002 presidential election in the 1st round (October 6), 46.4% of voters voted for L.I. Lulu da Silva, a trade union leader and one of the leaders of the Workers’ Party, which represents both left-wing radical and more moderate social democratic currents. The candidate of the government Party of Brazilian Social Democracy J. Serra received 23.2% of the vote, the representative of the Brazilian Socialist Party A. Garotinho – 17.9% and the representative of the Socialist People’s Party S. Gomis – 12%. In the 2nd round L.I. Lulu da Silva was supported by 61.3%, and J. Serra – by 38.7%.