Science and Culture of Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka, according to searchforpublicschools, lower secondary education is compulsory for children. In 2001, there were over 4.3 million students, with over 200,000 teachers. There were 13 universities with over 48,000 students. The largest universities in Peradeniya, Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, Colombo.
Scientific activities are coordinated by the National Science Foundation under the Ministry of Economic Reforms, Science and Technology. There are many research institutes involved in fundamental research, problems of agriculture, and medicine. The universities of Sri Lanka are important scientific centers.
Art in the classical period (3rd century BC – 12th century) developed primarily in the capitals – Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. Architecture and painting were primarily associated with Buddhism. Giant stupas over 100 m high, built in Anuradhapura in the 3rd-5th centuries, have survived to this day. Famous frescoes in Sigiriya depicting Apsaras (5th century). From the 8th c. Buddhist temples become less monumental, acquiring complete harmony in Polonnaruwa. The construction of giant Buddha statues continued. Many secular sculptures, buildings of royal palaces, Hindu temples have been preserved. The most outstanding work of painting of the Middle Ages is considered to be the wall paintings in the Jetavana monastery (Polonnaruwa, 12th-13th centuries). From Ser. 13th c. cultural decline begins. A religious revival brought about the emergence of the Kandyan style of painting (18th-19th centuries). From con. 19th century
Since 1948, painting and architecture have been actively developing, combining national traditional and modern European cultures. Along with the preservation of the folk theater, modern types of theatrical art appeared.
The most ancient works of literature – “Dipavansa” (4th century AD) and “Mahavansa” (5th century) – are written in Pali. Along with myths and legends, they contain historical facts. In the 5th-6th centuries. there is a huge commentary literature in Pali. The most famous authors are Buddhaghoshi, the author of the encyclopedia of Buddhism “Visuddhimagga”; Buddhadatta, author of five manuals to the canon; Dhammapala. A new flowering of literature in Pali came in the 12th century.
The oldest literary works in the Sinhala language date back to the turn of the 9th-10th centuries. From this period, literature developed predominantly in this language. The 13th century is considered the golden age. (“The Sea of Nectar” and “The Lamp of the Buddhist Teachings” by Gurulugomi; “The Refuge of the Buddha” by Vidyachakravarthy and especially the “Garland of Gems of the True Faith” by Dharmasena). One of the best works of Sinhalese poetry, The Pearl of Poetry, written by King Parakramabahu II (1236–70), appeared. A particularly significant work of the 14th century. is the Ornament of True Religion by Jayabahu Dharmakirti. From the 15th century the gradual decline of Sinhala prose begins, but poetry flourishes. Allocate “The Diadem of Poetry” (1450) by Sri Rahul, the author and a number of other relatively secular poetic works; “Poem about Guttila” by Vettev. From the beginning 17th century there is a decline and Sinhalese poetry.
From con. 19th century the development of Sinhala non-religious prose begins (“Vimala” and “Love Letter” by Albert Silva, “Mina” by Simon Silva). Martin Wickremasinghe (1891-1976), the author of the famous trilogy The Changing Village, The Last Century and The End of the Century, is recognized as the greatest writer. Significant works were created by Gunadedasa Amarasekara (“Born Again” and “Legsless”), Ediriwira Sarachandra (“Tired Sees No Way”, “All Souls’ Day”), K. Jayatilleke (“Unpleasant Story”) and Siri Gunna-singhe (“Shadow “).
From con. 19th century as an independent Sri Lankan literature in Tamil and English begins to develop.