Science and Culture of Colombia
According to ejiaxing, the modern Colombian education system is built in accordance with several laws that were adopted in the 1990s: the Law on Higher Public Education (1992), the Law on the Distribution of Resources and Powers by Territorial Units (1993), the Universal Law on Education (1993), the Decree on the Education of Ethnic Groups (1995), the Law on Preschool Education (1997).
The Universal Education Act introduced compulsory 10 years of basic education for children aged 5-15, which includes: one (final) year of pre-school education; 1st-5th grade – elementary school and 6-9th grade – basic level of secondary school. For adolescents aged 15-16, a two-year education is intended, which has an academic (humanitarian) or vocational orientation; upon graduation from a secondary educational institution, graduates are issued a bachelor’s degree, which is necessary for admission to a university.
In 2000, total spending on education was 4.7% of GDP. Basic education covered 4.5 million students, secondary education 3.1 million people. (net coverage of this level of education was 56.6%). The gross enrollment of young people in higher education is at the level of 23.3%.
Colombian universities have 977,000 students; the largest are: the National University of Colombia (founded in 1867, 28 thousand students), the University of Antioquia in Medellin (founded in 1822, 21 thousand students), the Pedagogical and Technical University of Colombia in Bogotá (founded in 1953, 14 thousand. students).
The culture of Indian tribes in Colombia was almost completely destroyed by the conquistadors in the 16th century. Only the remains of ancient Indian buildings have survived from it – stone sanctuaries and tombs of the San Agustin culture, temples and fortifications of the Chibcha Indians, as well as metal and ceramic products presented in the Bogotá Gold Museum and the National Museum. Some cities founded on the site of Indian settlements are of interest as architectural monuments of the colonial period: the historical center of Cartagena and the La Candelaria region of Bogotá are declared by UNESCO as a heritage of mankind.
The folklore of the Indian tribes did not have much influence on the development of national literature, the main genres of which were originally historical and everyday chronicles (G. Jimenez de Quesada and others) and poetry. In con. 18 – beg. 19th centuries they give way to revolutionary patriotic classicism (C. Torres, J. Fernandez Madrid). After independence was won, romanticism was established in literature, which dominated until the beginning. 20th century (the largest representative is the poet R. Pombo). In parallel, costumbrism developed (T. Carrasquilla, J. de Restrepo). Romanticism was replaced by modernism (poets J.A. Silva, G. Valencia), and later postmodernism and avant-gardism (poet L. de Greif). The outstanding contemporary writer G. Garcia Marquez (born 1928), winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature, is one of the leading representatives of the “new Latin American novel.”
The visual art of the colonial era is represented mainly by church paintings, carpet carvings in the interiors of churches, and book miniatures. From con. 18th century religious painting gives way to portraits, landscapes, everyday genres. At 19 – beg. 20th century costumbrism, academism, realism, impressionism are widespread. From Ser. 20th century Colombian artists began to be influenced by expressionism, cubism, abstractionism, pop art. Prominent representatives of modernism are A. Ob-regon, E. Grau Araujo. The world famous artist and sculptor F. Botero, who creates in the genre of postmodernism. Outstanding composers – the creator of the national anthem H.M. Ponce de Leon and G. Uribe Holguin.
The national stage art is actively developing. Once every 2 years, the Iberoamerican Theater Festival is held in Bogotá. The national cinema has achieved certain successes. International film festivals are held in Cartagena and Bogotá.
Most of the research institutes and research centers that exist today originated in con. 19 – 1st floor. 20th century, mainly at leading universities. The most famous of them are the Agustino Codazzi Geographical Institute, the Caro and Cuervo Institute (philology), the Colombian Academy of History. The achievements of Colombian scientists in the field of medicine are generally recognized. One of them, E. Patarroyo, who invented a vaccine against certain types of malaria, gained worldwide fame.