Around 25% of the workforce is employed in agriculture (2014), generating 5.4% of GDP. Agricultural production is almost entirely done by private companies. A lack of capital and the small size of the farms prevent effective management. The agricultural area consists of 64% arable land, 33% meadows and pastures, and 3% areas for permanent crops (fruit and wine growing). Important agricultural regions are the Romanian plain in the Danube lowlands, the Tisza lowlands, Transylvania and the Dobruja. The main crops are corn, wheat, sugar beets, sunflowers, vegetables and potatoes. Fruit growing is particularly widespread in the south and south-east, while viticulture is widespread in the southern Sub-Carpathian Mountains, in Transylvania and in Dobruja; famous vineyards are Drăgăşani, Odobeşti, Panciu, Cotnari and Murfatlar. Especially in the Danube lowlands, on the lower Alt, in the Bărăgan and in the southern Dobrudscha, high-yield agriculture is only possible with irrigation. In the livestock industry, cattle and pig breeding predominate, sheep breeding in the mountains and in Dobruja.
Forestry: Despite considerable logging (2013: 17.7 million m 3), the forest population could be kept almost constant.
Fisheries: Due to extensive fishing, wild fishing and environmental pollution, the catch in the Danube has decreased drastically. Carp and trout are also farmed in the inland waters.
The extraction of crude oil (secured reserves: 100 million t) in the Subcarpathian region (with the old focal points in the Ploieşti and Bacău area and the younger ones north of Piteşti and around Craiova) as well as natural gas (Transylvania and the Black Sea) are of great importance. The uranium extraction covers the domestic demand. Hard coal (estimated reserves: 50 million t) is mined mainly in the Petroşani basin, lignite in the Trotuş basin, in the river basin of the White and Rapid Körös as well as the Jiu; after the decline during the 1990s, the reduction has stabilized at a low level. Iron ore production has come to a complete standstill. The mining of non-ferrous metal ores (lead, zinc, copper) is also important. The gold deposits in the West Transylvanian Mountains, which have been known for 2,000 years, have attracted the interest of foreign investors.
According to allcountrylist, the most important energy sources in Romania are fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, hard coal) with a primary energy share of (2013) 78.4%. Hydropower contributes 10.3%, nuclear power 7.9%, only 3.4% is accounted for by renewable energies. The most important hydropower plant is located at the Iron Gate and is operated jointly with Serbia. The first reactor at the Cernavodă nuclear power plant has been in operation since 1996; The second block was completed in 2007.
Romania has a remarkable tourist potential. The approximately 8 million foreign visitors annually come mainly from Hungary, Moldova, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Germany. Traditionally preferred destinations are the Carpathian Mountains (diverse nature and hiking tourism as well as winter sports, for example in Poiana Brașov and Predeal south of Brașov, Bușteni and Sinaia on the eastern edge of the Bucegi), the Black Sea coast with the seaside resorts of Mamaia, Neptun, Constanța and Mangalia and over 140 Kur – and seaside resorts (e.g. Borsec, Baile Herculane in the Banat Mountains and Baile Felix near Oradea). Other attractions are the Moldavian monasteries, the medieval fortified churches in Transylvania and Bucharest.
Romania is an important transit country between the EU, the Black Sea countries and the Middle East. Most of the transport infrastructure, however, is in need of modernization. The rail network covers around 11,000 km, of which around 37% are electrified; the road network has a length of around 84,000 km. A motorway connects Bucharest with Piteşti. Inland shipping is practiced almost exclusively on the Danube, which is navigable for seagoing vessels in the canalized Sulina arm of the delta as far as Brăila. The most important Danube ports are those of Sulina, Galați, Brăila, Cernavodă, Călărași, Giurgiu and Drobeta-Turnu Severin; the largest seaport is Constanța (with the port Agigea to the south), through the Danube-Black Sea Canal connected to the lower Danube. The most important international airport is Bucharest-Otopeni, there are other airports with international connections, among others. in Constanța, Timişoara, Arad and Sibiu.
Constanta, [kon stantsa], German Constanta, capital of the district Constanta port city on the Black Sea, Romania, in Dobrogea, (2011) 283 900 residents.
University (founded in 1990), museums, aquarium, dolphinarium, planetarium. Industrial site with shipbuilding and repair yard, chemical, building materials, furniture, paper, textile and food industries. Constanța is the largest seaport in Romania; There is a connection to European inland waterways via the Danube-Black Sea Canal; on the southern edge of Constanța lies the large port of Constanța Süd; Ferry connection with Istanbul (Turkey); international Airport. The well-known Black Sea health resort Mamaia belongs to the northern urban area, 14 km south of Constanța the Black Sea health resort Eforie with the seaside resorts Eforie Nord and Eforie Süd.
Remains of the city wall (2nd century) and a large floor mosaic of a former trading house as well as remains of four Christian basilicas (4th and 5th centuries) have been preserved from Roman times; In 1988 excavations in the northern part of the imperial necropolis uncovered a grave with paintings (late 4th century). The lighthouse dates from the Genoese era (13th century, restored in 1860); Noteworthy are several churches from the 19th century as well as a mosque in the Moorish style (1910) with a 50 m high minaret; in the style of Art nouveau the casino (1907-10).
From the Greeks from Miletus in the 7th century BC. Founded as a colony of Tomis (Ovid’s exile), Constantiniana gained importance as a trading center under Constantine the Great and served as a port for Genoese merchants in the 14th century as Constanza. Conquered by the Ottomans in 1413, Constanța fell to Romania in 1878 and became the administrative center of Dobruja.