Mongolia Travel Overview
At a glance
Capital: Ulan Bator
Official language: Mongolian
Continent: East Asia
Riding on horses and sleeping in yurts
Vacation in Mongolia, in a vast country, about four and a half times the size of Germany, 45 times the size of Austria, with only 2.5 million residents.
Around a third of the total population lives in the capital of Mongolia, Ulan Bator. The other big cities are Erdenet with 79,649 residents, Darchan with 72,386 residents and Tschoibalsan with 44,367 residents. Ulan Bator “Red Hero” is the economic, cultural and political center of Mongolia. The sights are the natural history museum, Suchbaator square with the Suchbaator monument, the palace of Bogd Kahn and the Zaisan monument. Also a visit to the state opera or the state theater or the ballet and the folk song and dance ensemble should be noticed during a stay.Despite the great poverty of the country, Ulan Bator is under construction, which makes the gap between rich and poor even bigger.
Geography of Mongolia
According to Countryaah, Mongolia is a landlocked country and, with an area of 1,564,116 km², is the number 18 of 193 independent countries in the world. At the same time, Mongolia has the southernmost permanent frost ground and the northernmost Gobi desert. More than half of the nearly 3 million residents of Mongolia live below the poverty line. Mongolia is located between Central Asia and East Asia and as a landlocked country has no access to the sea. Mongolia borders on Russia in the north and the People’s Republic of China in the south.
Monglei – overnight in the yurt
In addition to a trip to the Gobi desert, a visit to the Terelj nature reserve, where you can stay overnight in yurts in the traditional Mongolian dwellings and enjoy the unique beauty of the landscape, is extremely worth seeing. Mongolia offers hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of untouched nature, the strange and fascinating culture of the steppe nomads, their famous hospitality, original throat singing to the tune of the “horse head fiddle” and a proud people with a long tradition.
Mongolian cuisine is dominated by milk and meat products, as arable farming is hardly possible due to the dry climate. The most common dishes are simply boiled sheep meat, “Buzz” meat-filled dumplings that are steam-cooked, “Bansh” dumplings cooked in a water bath or “Khuushuur” dumplings fried in sheep fat.
Capital: Ulan Bator
Official language: Mongolian
Tögrög (100 Möngö)
ISO 4217 code
MNT / 496
Geo coordinates: N 46 ° 51 ’45 ” E 103 ° 50′ 48″
Highest mountain: Tavan Bogd Uul (4,374 m)
Total area: 1,565,000 km²
Mainland: 1,564,690 km²
National border: 8,114 km
Dependency: China, People’s Republic until 1921
UN member since: 1961
Form of government: Socialist republic
Export goods: Wool, cattle, hides, furs
BSP: $ 1,537,000,000
GDP: $ 1,446,000,000
GDP purchasing power parity: $ 5,387,000,000
Economic growth: 5.7%
Inflation rate: 10.6%
State budget revenue: $ 716,000,000
State budget expenditure: $ 683,000,000
Foreign debt: $ 1,340,000,000
Electricity consumption: 3,426 million KWh
Oil production: 500 million m³
Oil consumption: 11,700 million m³
Cultivation area: 0.76%
Sheep: 11,600,000 pieces
Residents in cities: 1,585,200
Average age: 24.6 years
0-14 years: 27.9%
15-64 years: 68.4%
> 65 years: 3.7%
Population growth: 1.46%
Birth rate: 21.59 / 1,000 residents
Death rate: 6.95 / 1,000 residents
Ratio men / women: 1
Fertility: 2.25 children / woman
Infant mortality: 52.12 ‰
Life expectancy men: 62.64 years
Life expectancy women: 67.25 years
ISO 3166 Alpha 2: MN
ISO 3166 Alpha 3: MNG
ISO 3166 numeric: 496
Top Level Domain: mn
IOC country code: MGL
UN / LOCODE: MN
Telephone connections: 152,000
Cell Phones: 316,000
Internet users: 120,000
Railway lines: 1,810 km
Paved roads: 9,086 km
Merchant fleet (ships over 1,000 GRT): 61
Number of doctors: 7,550
Daily food intake: 2.010 kcal / resident
HIV- infected people: 700
Last sovereign since: 1921
Main religious group: Buddhists
Prison inmates: 6,600
Armed forces (troop strength): 9,000
Defense Spending: $ 25.7 million
Arriving by plane
The national airline MIAT – Mongolian International Air Transport (OM) (Internet: www.miat.com) flies to Frankfurt, Moscow, Beijing and Seoul all year round and to Osaka and Tokyo in the summer months. MIAT (OM) flies non-stop from Frankfurt to Ulan Bator and from Berlin via Moscow to Ulan Bator.
Other airlines that fly to Mongolia are: Aeroflot (SU), Korean Air (KE) and Air China (CA).
US $ 12, included in the ticket price.
Arrival by car
Car: There are several trunk roads, the main road leads from Irkutsk (Russian Federation) to Ulan Bator. Another border crossing that is open to tourists is near Erlian on the border with China. Tourists are usually not allowed to enter Mongolia by land, a special permit from the Mongolian authorities is required.
Bus: Buses connect Ulan Bator with Ulan Ude (Russian Federation).
Arriving by train
From the Trans-Siberian Railway (Moscow-Vladivostik) the Trans-Mongolian Railway branches off at Ulan Ude and runs once a week via Ulan Bator to Jining in China (and on to Beijing). There are also regular connections between Ulan Bator and Beijing and between Ulan Bator and Moscow (travel time: 36 hours). Trains that run on international routes have sleeping and dining cars.
ON THE GO
Traveling by plane
Domestic flights are offered by EzNis Airways (www.eznisairways.com) and AeroMongolia (www.aeromongolia.mn). Mongolian International Air Transport (MIAT) (OM) only serves international routes.
The plane is the best mode of transport, especially when traveling to more remote regions.
On the way by car / bus
Paved roads are only found near the larger cities. A motorway running from east to west has been under construction since 2000, but progress is slow.
Long-distance buses run between some cities, but the roads are mostly unpaved. Minibuses also run and, like long-distance buses, are often overcrowded.
Rental cars with a driver are available through local tour operators; self-driving is not advisable due to the poor road condition, inadequate signage and inadequate maps (all-terrain vehicles are, however, available from Drive Mongolia, Internet: www.drivemongolia.com). In addition to jeeps, horses and camels are also available.
Traveling in the city
Buses and trolleybuses operate in Ulan Bator.
On the go by train
The route network of the Mongolian Railway (Internet: www.mtz.mn) covers 1815 km. The main route runs from north to south: Sühbaatar – Darhan – Ulan Bator – Saynshand – Dsamyn-Uud. Another route runs in the east of the country from Ereenzaw to Bajantumen. The important industrial areas are connected to the rail network by branch lines. The trains are slow, but inexpensive (different car classes).