Kazakhstan History and Politics
The nomadic tribes of Kazakhstan
The history of this region goes back to the Paleolithic Age. At that time it was already populated by various nomadic peoples. Finds from this time prove this, but of course it was not the current state of Kazakhstan. In the steppe of today’s Kazakhstan, from the 6th to the 3rd century BC The Saken through. These saks were representatives of the Scythian culture. Many nomad tribes migrated through this region of Central Asia.
In 1218 the rule of the Mongols began, who from this point on not only ruled over the area of today’s Kazakhstan, but had also conquered a huge world empire in the east of Asia. This rule lasted until 1395. In the course of the 15th century, different tribes united and the ethnic group that we call “Kazakhs” emerged. Their origin lies in Mongolian and Turkic-speaking tribes. The year 1465 represents the formation of a common khanate. This khanate is celebrated as a separate Kazakh state. But the unity did not last long, one parted again and different hordes fought each other.
These hordes submitted to the Russian Empire between 1731 and 1742. In 1801 the Kazakhs tried again to form an independent khanate, but failed. Their leader Buqai Khan had to submit to the Russians and the Kazak Khanate fell in 1822.
In 1868 Kazakhstan became part of the Russian Empire. In 1925 the country was renamed “Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Republic”. Attempts were made to compulsively settle the nomadic tribes roaming the country. But the shepherds didn’t want that, so many fled abroad, especially to China. The animals, an important source of food for Kazakhstan, took them away or killed them. The result was a very bad famine because the Soviets did not want the Kazakhs to live as they had always lived. In 1936 the Kazakh Soviet Republic became part of the Soviet Union. During the Second World War, many Germans from Russia came to Kazakhstan through Stalin.
In 1991 Kazakhstan declared its independence. As a country located in Asia according to internetsailors, Kazakhstan has been a sovereign and democratic presidential republic since 1995. At least that’s what it says on paper.
Nursultan Ä. Nazarbayev was the country’s president for a long time. His power was almost unlimited. He made all the important decisions in the country. In 2007 there was a constitutional amendment, so the president could be re-elected. In the presidential elections in 2005 and 2011, however, things did not go right, foreign observers speak of electoral fraud.
The Soviet Union established a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. From 1949 many nuclear tests took place here, some of them above ground. The damage is still visible today.
Relationship with Russia
But despite independence, economic relations with Russia continue to exist. And not only this: there is a non-aggression pact with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Since May 2001 there has been a security pact with Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. At the same time, the president is trying to get closer to Europe in order to find foreign investors who can establish companies there and create jobs. Many people are now returning who emigrated to Germany a few years ago in order to gain a foothold in their old homeland. Some also succeed in this and they create new jobs for the local people.
Political situation today
There is no freedom of assembly in Kazakhstan, the free press is forbidden, criticism of the government is punished and there are only parties loyal to the president in parliament. Politics prohibits any criticism. The government is afraid that people will resist at some point. On the one hand, the president ensures a politically stable situation in the country so that foreign companies can also set up shop. At the same time, every opposition, every other opinion, is nipped in the bud. The independent and often feeling free Kazakhs pay a high price for their growth, which only benefits a small part of the country.
President of Kazakhstan
The current President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is called Kassym-Shomart Tokayev. The president’s term of office is normally five years and a president in Kazakhstan can be elected for two terms.
Bribery is a big problem. The foreign word for this is corruption. If you want to send your children to kindergarten, you have to bribe someone. There is also money for a good school. Anyone who wants to get a government contract must also pay for it. The job is then given to whoever is willing to pay the most.