Jordan History and Politics
Early and Roman times
Archaeologists have found that what is now Jordan and especially the region around the capital Amman has been around since 8000 BC. Were inhabited by humans. Some migrated through the country as nomads with their herds of cattle, others settled down early on. The Jordan Valley is one of the first regions in the world where people settled down, at least that’s what one suspects. Because both forms of life, that of the nomads and the sedentary farmers, existed there. As early as 1200 BC First forms of government developed, for example that of the Ammonites. The capital derives its name from these.
The history of the region is changeable and different rulers took power. They included the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians. From the 5th century BC The Nabataeans arrived, who mainly settled around the place Petra. Greeks, Ptolemies and Seleucids followed, who brought Greek influence to the region.
In 106 AD the East Bank became a Roman province under the name Arabia Petrae. Ancient Petra still bears witness to this time. The Romans had already expanded their sphere of influence in the region beforehand. The Romans used what was then the East Bank as a demarcation against the Bedouins, who were interested in finding land here.
Islam spread and the Crusaders followed
In 636, Eastern Jordan came under the control of Islam, which during this time spread throughout the Arab world. The then Eastern Roman Empire could do little to oppose the Muslim Arabs. Several rulers took turns. If you want to remember this time, you can have a look at the “desert castles” that are spread over the desert landscape of Jordan, a country located in Asia according to mathgeneral. Evidence of this period can still be found today, especially in the east of Amman. The crusaders also left their imposing castles in the region, such as in Aqaba or Kerak. They were particularly active in the region at the beginning of the 12th century. The Mongols followed and devastated the country in 1258.
Influence of the colonial powers
At the beginning of the 20th century, the colonial powers England and France had great influence in the region and helped to determine further developments. The current state is thus also a consequence of the colonial policy of these states at the time. In 1916 there was an uprising that went down in history as the Arab uprising. Native Arab tribes fought against the Ottomans.
Who Was TE Lawrence?
A man named Thomas Edward Lawrence became known here, an Englishman and also a British agent, around whom many stories have grown and who became a film hero. He fought on the side of the Arab tribes. Lawrence of Arabia was the name of the film that tells the events of that time with the help of an exciting story.
However, despite the high level of commitment, the tribes did not become independent. Jordan became part of the British Mandate of Palestine in accordance with the Sykes-Pikot secret agreement. East of the Jordan River was now the emirate of Transjordan, an emirate in which the Hashemites ruled, also a British mandate. Jews were not allowed to settle in Transjordan. The emir of this area was Abadullah Ibn al-Hussein. In March 1945 the Arab League was founded and Transjordan was one of the founding states of the League.
Released into independence
It was not until 1946 that Transjordan was granted independence. The Emir Abdullah became the first king of the country as Abdullah I. The state was now called the ” Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan”.
Shortly thereafter, a war broke out between Israel and the Arab world. Jordanian troops occupied the West Bank and East Jerusalem. At the same time, many people from Palestine fled to Transjordan or the West Bank.
The territories were finally lost in the Six Day War in 1967, because all areas west of the Jordan fell to Israel. Again, many refugees from Palestine came to Jordan. Due to the large number of Palestinians, the influence of the PLO also increased, the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Civil war broke out when the Jordanian army stepped up against the PLO. In the end, the PLO had to withdraw from Jordan. In 1994, however, Jordan signed a peace treaty with Israel, and claims to the West Bank, which once belonged to Jordan, were given up.
After the death of King Hussein I in 1999, his son Abdullah II took over. the government and directed the country’s politics more towards the west. This resulted in trade agreements with the USA and an agreement with the European Union.
Jordan got and is feeling the consequences of the Syrian civil war (please take a look at Syria), because the country now has many refugees from Syria to take care of, which causes the small state many problems.