Italy Demographics 1936
A new general population census took place on 21 April 1936, exactly five years after the previous one. The total present population was 42,444,588 residents, The resident population of 42,993,602; the density (calculated on the basis of the present population) is 137 residents per sq. km. The fundamental results of the census are shown in the table on p. 743, which is to be compared with the one published on p. 739 of vol. XIX.
The number of provinces, due to the creation of the two new ones of Asti and Littoria, has risen to 94; the average population of the province is therefore 451,538 residents; there are 7339 municipalities and the average population of the municipality is therefore 5783 inhab .; the average number of municipalities per province is 78. At 31 December 1937 the present population was estimated at 43,029,000 residents, the resident population at 43,578,000.
The movement of the population (increase or decrease) in the five years between the last two censuses is graphically represented by the attached map, which can be compared with the one on p. 743 of vol. XIX, with the caveat that, moreover, the latter covers a ten-year period. It will be observed that among the provinces with decreasing population, four continue to appear in Sicily. Now it should be noted that for the period 1921-31 it was found that the decrease, which then affected almost the entire island, was not effective, but derived from the fact that in 1921 and also in previous censuses the population had been artificially calculated in excess. It was therefore necessary, after 1931, to carry out checks and corrections, but these were not always and everywhere effective: therefore the legacy of ideas and principles by now fortunately outdated still weighs on the demographic results of 1936. Probably nowhere on the island was there any real decrease between 1931 and 1936, or, if there was, due to the contingent of troops and workers in AO at the time of the census.
The distribution of the centralized and scattered population in 1936 is shown by the following table:
Municipalities with more than 100,000 residents have risen to 22 with a total population of 7,780,119 residents
A publication of the Central Statistical Institute, which appeared as early as 1935 and therefore carried out on the basis of the 1931 census, specified – among other things – the concept of “center” more precisely and consequently also reached a more exact calculation of the scattered population. around which the results of previous censuses left room for some doubts. The scattered population was increasing from 1921 to 1931, having passed from 24.4% to 26.6%; in 1936 there was a slight decrease (26.2%). Significant increases in the scattered population are recorded for Liguria and the Tre Venezie.
The municipalities located above 1500 m., Which were 20 in 1931, rose to 22 in 1936, for the creation of the new municipality of Sestriere at 2026 m. and for the transfer of the municipal seat of Ferrera Cenisio to Cenisio (1925 m.); Sestriere is the highest municipal capital of the entire Alpine region. The municipalities that have the capital above 1000 m. there are 227; the highest town in the Apennines is Pescocostanzo (1360 m.).
The number of centers, which in 1931 was 27,082, rose in 1936 to 27,240. Two centers, which are not municipal offices, exceed Sestriere in height, namely Trepalle (2069 m.), A fraction of Livigno in the prov. di Sondrio, and S. Martino di Monteneve (2355 m.) in the municipality of Moso (Bolzano); the latter, which is certainly also the highest inhabited center of all the Aloi, is a mining center (zinc): and sso counted 139 residents. in 1931, but in 1936 it does not appear as inhabited; having been temporarily suspended the activity of the mines.
The highest center of the Apennines is Roccacalascio at 1464 m. (43 in 1931 and 51 in 1936). But barely 5% of the Italian centers are more than 1000 meters high; 25% is between 500 and 1000 meters and 70% below 500 meters; of these, over 23% are below 100 meters.
The centers with more than 20,000 residents (residents) are 148.
Among the recently formed centers, those that arose following complete reclamation occupy the first place: the largest in the Pontine region, Littoria, Sabaudia, Pontinia, have an urban character; rural character Aprilia and the new centers of Sardinia, Mussolinia, Fertilia. Other new centers have sprung up in regions where the use of underground resources is intensifying: such as Carbonia (see App.) In Sardinia and Arsia in Istria (see App.).
From a demographic point of view, it should also be noted that the population of the new reclamation centers does not generally take place with contingents supplied by the surrounding countries, but with families from overpopulated regions that are often very far away: the new Pontine centers are populated mainly with families from the Veneto, of the Polesine, of the Ferrarese; those of Sardinia with families from the continent. Therefore the population of the reclamation regions is connected with the phenomenon of internal migrations, which, rigorously regulated, took on considerable new development in the years 1935 and 1936.
On the other hand, the migratory movement abroad tends to contract more and more. In 1936 41,710 individuals were expatriated, the minimum figure recorded after the years of the world war when emigration was practically canceled: out of the total indicated above 21,882 were directed to European countries, and 19,828 to transoceanic countries. It should be noted that expatriates were still around 83,000 in the years 1932-33, 68,461 in 1934 and 57,408 in 1935; the reduction is therefore progressive and decisive. On the other hand, the expatriation shows conspicuous repatriations: 32,760 in 1936, of which 19,703 from European countries and 13,057 from transoceanic countries. Therefore 90% of emigration to European countries can be considered temporary; as for transoceanic emigration, taking into account repatriation, the definitive losses are really reduced to a minimum.