China Early History
History of China for a paper
Would you like to learn more about the history of China? Are you looking for a timeline or a short version of Chinese history? Then you are exactly right here. This article provides a good summary of the history of China in a nutshell. You don’t have to roll over hundreds of books on China. Starting with the early cultures of China, you will learn everything about the history of China as a great power. The most important events from the early days of China through the time of communism in China to the situation today.
Early cultures of China
Ten thousand years ago, people settled in what is now China, a country located in Asia according to philosophynearby. They mostly chose the big rivers as places. This is how Chinese culture originated in many different places in China. One of the best known early cultures is the Yangshao culture, which dates from around 5000 BC. Until 3000 BC – lasted over 2000 years after all. The Yangshao used pottery wheels and painted ceramics. While the Yangshao culture developed on the Yellow River, people also settled on the Yangtze, the longest river in China and all of Asia. This culture was called the Hemudu culture after a village called Hemudu. The Liangzhu culture developed in southeast China who made items from jade stone. But much of China’s early history remains unproven. Many stories are told, for example about the ancient emperors who ruled over China and the yellow emperor Huang Di, who led a famous tribe on the Yellow River. He is still very much revered to this day, although we don’t know anything about him.
Chinese writing and warring states
The period of the Early States of China extends from 1766 BC. BC to 221 BC Chr. An important part of Chinese culture, the Chinese writing. This is not the oldest script in the world, but the only one of the ancient scripts that is still written AND spoken. This developed at the time of the early states. The Shang dynasty ruled first, during which the first Chinese characters developed. The Shang culture was adopted by the Zhou. This was followed by turbulent times known as spring and autumn. During this time, the important schools of philosophy in China, Confucianism and the Daoism. Philosophy wanted to help overcome the problems of the time. From 481 BC. BC to 256 BC One speaks of the “time of the warring states “. Here a state called Qin prevailed, which is also written Ch’in. It is said that the name “China” is derived from this empire.
The first Chinese state and the Great Wall of China
The year 221 BC is significant for Chinese history. BC, because in that year, after centuries of fighting, the country was united under the Qin. So in the year 221 BC BC the state of Qin all other states fighting with it and ended the time of the Warring States. The first Chinese state was created. The first emperor was named Qin Shihuang. Not only did he unite the Chinese Empire, but he also started building the Great Wall of China. Parts of it existed before. To this day, this wall is one of the most important landmarks in China.
After the death of the First Emperor there were again arguments. A famous dynasty called the Han came to power. The teaching of Confucius was lived by many Chinese and Buddhism also caught on in China. The time from about 200 BC. BC to AD 200 was a time of important inventions. In Europe at this time, the Romans ruled and had built the mighty Roman Empire. Some inventions were made in both corners of the world at the same time, only the Romans and Chinese did not know about each other.
The time of division and the golden age
After the fall of the Han, the empire was threatened mainly from the north. This time is also called the “time of division”. At that time, China was not a unitary state, but divided into many smaller states. It was only under the Sui in 581 that the empire was reunited. At this time, the famous Imperial Canal was also built and the Chinese economy was growing. The Sui were followed by the Tang from 618 to 907 and China became a world power. One speaks of the “Golden Age” of China. During this time, art also flourished. The Song ruled from 960 to 1279.
After this dynasty, the Chinese had to bow to a power from the north, the Mongols. The dynasty that ruled China was now called the Yuan, which means “beginning”. Its founder was Kublai Khan. The extent to which the Mongols influenced the Chinese, or vice versa, is controversial among historians. They probably influenced each other. Incidentally, the famous Marco Polo also traveled to China during this time, and Europe met China for the first time. The joy over Mongol rule was not too great in China. This was established in 1368 by the Ming dynasty replaced. This time was mainly characterized by a culture bloom. This is also where the famous “Ming vases”, ceramics that are now very dearly traded, originated from the Ming period.
Quing Dynasty and European Relations
The Manchu were the last Chinese dynasty and ruled from 1644 to 1911. This dynasty was also called the Quing Dynasty. In the period from 1700 to 1800, the Chinese population doubled, the economy grew, and China was a major power. Incidentally, the Chinese Empire reached its greatest expansion in 1759, because it was 11.5 million square kilometers at the time, larger than it is today. In the 19th century the Europeans tried to influence China, especially in the field of trade. They weren’t exactly squeamish about this and tried to force their interests through.
The Opium Wars
It came to the so-called Opium Wars with Great Britain, in which Great Britain enforced its right to trade in opium. In the Treaty of Nanking of 1842, Hong Kong fell to Great Britain. But other countries also asserted their interests in the area of trade. The consequences for the Chinese were devastating; they were unable to protect their own products.