Due to the increasing number of activities performed in enclosed spaces, environmental comfort became the fundamental point in the conception of architectural projects. Lighting, one of the main variables of comfort, it is cause for great concern, especially in the areas of human resources and safety, be related not only to the visual aspect, but also the noise level and temperature.
An inadequate lighting can cause fatigue, headaches and irritability, which will result in decreased productivity, errors and even accidents. Cognition and visual perception are strongly influenced by the Enlightenment, and when this influence is negative, depending on the nature and content of the work, the consequences can be serious.
The main variables that can interfere in lighting are:the type of lock used in construction, the choice of luminaires and lamps, reflective characteristics of the coating materials and colours employed.
As for the type, the lighting can be natural, that is that received by sunlight through the openings (doors, Windows, translucent tiles, halls etc.) and that may vary according to weather conditions, periods of the year and time of day; or artificial, which is made by electric lamps Lighting.
Maximum use of natural light generates energy savings
The second is a reinforcement to natural lighting and can be general or supplement. General lighting illuminates the entire environment, not aiming at a single operation, and may take the form, for example, light fixtures installed on the ceiling via aceinland. Additional lighting illuminates a particular object or action and complements the General lighting.
The definition of the type of lamp and lighting fixture to be used is a very important factor for the quality of lighting. Your choice depends on the type of environment and in which activity will be developed on the site.
Of equal importance to the end result will be the distribution and location of these parts. The fixtures should be positioned so that prevent (or as the case may be, emphasize) shadows and contrasts than if you want to illuminate.
The amount of fixtures necessary to achieve the level of illuminance adequate for the given task execution is established by the project database, which takes into account the users ‘ visual acuity, the tasks undertaken, the dimensions of the objects to be viewed, the time of exposure of these objects in the eyes, the right foot of the building, the height of the work plan, the reflection of the surroundings contrast, the colors and the layout of the site and the type of lamps used.
About lighting, we understand that:
1) Illuminance: is the luminous flux incident per unit area. Your unit of measure is the lux. Luminous flux is the amount of light emitted per second by a light source, and your unit is the lumen (lm). For purposes of calculation Manager, natural light is disregarded.
2) Selection of illuminance: in the workplace minimum illuminance levels are defined by the NBR 5413:92, Brazilian Association of technical standards (ABNT). The illuminance is measured in the field of work, and, when this is not set, it is understood as referring to a level horizontal plane 0.75 m from the floor.
3) visual Acuity: is the level of ability of the eye to discriminate the details. For selection of illuminance, the NBR 5413:92 assigns weights depending on the age of the observer, which will involve a greater or lesser level of minimum illuminance required. This NBR distinguishes three age groups: less than 40 years, 40 to 55 years and more than 55 years. Also assigns weights to the speed and accuracy of the task and the reflectance of the background activity.
4) Lamps: basically there are two types of lamps, incandescent and discharge them. Between the common, there are the incandescent halogen lamps and the dicroicas. Between the have the discharge of low pressure (low pressure fluorescent and sodium) and high pressure (mercury, sodium, and metal vapours joint). Incandescent bulbs generate light by incandescence of a wire covered by electrical current due to your heating when this is placed in a vacuum or gaseous medium. Halogen incandescent contain halogen (iodine, fluorine, bromine) in your bulb. The dicroicas works similarly to a halogen reflector dicroico which produces a concentrated beam of bright light and prevents the emission of heat.
5) LED technology: the LED is a semiconductor electronic components, namely, an led (light emitter diode). Light source produced based on organic compounds, a typical led works for more than 11 years, if used for up to 12 hours a day, even with a cost higher than that of any technology that has recently reached the market, the use of leds makes the electricity bill be cheaper. Used, nowadays, especially in places where compact fluorescent lamps do not serve, the leds are the great promise of the future with regard to General lighting.
Generally speaking, we understand: a good lighting design must include, at a minimum, the following actions:
the) reach a suitable illuminance level the use of the environment;
b) choose correctly the lamps and light fixtures that will be employed, taking into account also the economic factor;
c) faithfully reproduce the colors of objects and the environment;
d) create impression of well-being and comfort to users;
e) harmonize the lighting with the global project of the environment, i.e. to differentiate the environments whose lighting should always have decorative and/or functional function;
f) create independent electrical circuits as the use.
When designing corporate spaces, the architect must understand the business in a way wide, but knowing in detail the situation in which each user or team, is inserted in order to understand all the physical and mental aspects involved and relate to the principles of ergonomics.
Often, the physical aspects are more visible, because they are associated with the procedure, the actions, gestures and movements who performs the tasks, unlike the mental aspects, covering the cognition and the psyche.
Cognition refers to the reasoning, decision making, learning, planning, anyway, to the intellectual side of the activities, and is directly linked to the psyche, which covers the feelings, emotions, behaviour and perception.
Being the workplace a producer of sensations (sense) that lead to perceptions (which is understood), you can’t be too careful at the moment of your conception.